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crises from ancient times until the end of this century, Humanity has witnessed many of them, whether economic, social, environmental or security. They are part of the local and international theatre. therefore Crisis management is seen as a manifestation of human interaction with the pressing or serious crises facing human life since trying to confront and oppose nature. It’s not called crisis management, But it has other names such as: Good management, or leadership skills, Or make a decision.

The concept of crisis management is a language and a convention:

The definition of management language and terminology:

It’s a trivial feminine name that combines the vocal combination in the section, It means rotation. As if you wanted to turn the handle before the door opened, That is, you have to run it, He says: I did this in this thing: If you try to force him to do that, You’re keeping him away from him. This thing: If you ask him to leave him, Management: Deliberation and treatment without delay.

The definition of management varies according to the point of view of the definition and the intellectual logic from which it begins. Frederick Taylor knew, Pioneer of scientific management, management that they have accurate knowledge of what they want people to learn, Then make sure they do it the best and cheapest way possible. Henry Fayol knew it as a work of forecasting, planning, organization, sequencing, coordination and control. Jhon F Mee believes that management is the art of maximizing results with minimal effort to maximize clarity and happiness for both employers and employees while providing the best service to the community. define it as the planning process, decision-making, organization, leadership, motivation, Control when the organization acquires human, material, financial and informatics resources, integrates them efficiently, unites them and translates them into outputs to achieve their goals and adapt to their environment (effectiveness).

The use of the word crisis arose in ancient Greek medicine, Where the word was used to indicate an important turning point, And having a crucial moment in the development of the disease, This leads to the patient’s recovery or death within it. A short period of time.

The definition of crisis management is an additional complex term:

Academic interest in crisis management research began in the early 1960s with the emergence of major crises facing society, With the escalation of international conflicts and the crises of the cold war, Especially when using the term U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in government. Once during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, The confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union allied with Cuba was one of the most violent in the Cold War, A crisis that almost led to nuclear war, McNamara therefore described it as a serious emergency management. Then take care of yourself by studying the term and moving from a political framework to a social framework and then an economic and administrative framework, Research and studies seem to define the concept of crisis management, From which we find:

Fahad Ahmed Al Shaalan defines crisis management as a special management process through which a group of pre-selected managers use their skills as well as special procedures to reduce losses to respond strategically to crisis situations, Referring to the crisis management team. According to Mohamed Muhanna, Crisis management points to how a variety of scientific and administrative tools can be used to overcome the crisis, And avoid its negative side, And use its positive side. Nawaf Qatish defines it as a technique or method of dealing with emergencies, dealing with crises that must be addressed and planning for an early confrontation, assuming information predicting such crises.

Types of crises:

Crises have different types and divisions, no matter how many and what types they may be divided into the following categories:

Or not: Classification of crises by configuration stage:

Crisis at birth / growth crisis / crisis at maturity / crisis upon return / crisis when disappearing

Secondly: Categorize crises by frequency:

Recurrent periodic crises/sudden, random and non-recurring crises.

Third: Categorize crises by depth:

Not deep, Weak impact, Surface crisis/ deep crisis, window, basic, Structural effect.

Fourthly: Classification of crises in terms of severity:

It is difficult to deal with unbridled violent crises. Sudden, violent and explosive crises that are light, calm and easy to cope with. They are far-reaching superficial crises and their effects are insignificant.

Fifthly: Crisis coverage and impact classification:

A general crisis involving all parts of the administrative entity in a special crisis/crisis limited to one or more parts.

Sixthly: Categorize crises by topic or focus:

Material crises: are economic, material, quantitative and measurable crises, It can be studied and dealt with financially, Tools commensurate with the nature of the crisis can be used.

Ethical crisis: is a psychological, personal and invisible crisis whose dimensions are not easily understood, The crisis cannot be seen or heard, but can be felt.

Crises that bring together the previous two types.

Stages and models of crisis management:

If an organization fails to pre-empt the crisis, They will have no choice but to manage the life cycle of the crisis faster than they can deteriorate and develop. Some writers propose practical models for crisis management to reduce their negative effects and take advantage of their positive aspects.

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