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Structural theory defines learning as: adjustments that occur in an individual’s functional cognitive system, which occurs to balance the contradictions arising from his interaction with actual facts.

Structural theory has gained popularity in recent years, although its idea is not modern, as trends towards structural theory can be observed through the work of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (from 320 470 B.C.), all of whom spoke of “the formation of knowledge”.
St. Augustine (mid-300 B.C.) says: “Sensory experiences must be relied upon when people are looking for the truth

Contrary to what was common in the past, We find modern theories that real learning does not depend on what the learner hears, Even if he remembers it and repeats it in front of the teacher. Every learner has his own way of understanding information, not necessarily what the teacher wants. So the teacher focuses on sending information to the learner, Confirming and repeating it is not useful to prove the information he wants in the learner’s mind.

Learning assumptions among the pioneers of structural theory:

Learning is an active and ongoing constructive process aimed at guiding:

A constructive process: That is, the learner builds new knowledge structures by linking new positions to similar experiences in the knowledge base and then matching new positions with previous experiences to form new knowledge structures according to structural theory.

2- Actor: That is, the learner must be active, The focus of the educational process is the active learner who achieves the discovery of knowledge with his mental effort. Learning can’t be constructive until the learner is active

3- Educational purpose: Learning from a structural perspective is objective learning in which an individual pursues a goal that helps him solve the problem he or she faces, Or answer a question that puzzles him, or internal self-satisfaction. tendency to learn a subject.

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The best learning conditions are created when the learner has a real problem or task:

Learning based on presenting practical problems solved by the learner, effectively reflecting the learner’s motivation to learn, and enhances his confidence in his abilities, And it makes his learning meaningful, because it’s connected to the real world.

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The learning process involves rebuilding the individual’s knowledge through a process of social negotiation with others:

Building an individual is not limited to building his or her knowledge through the world of reasonable experience, It also builds one’s knowledge by discussing the results with others from the knowledge they have acquired.

The tribal experience of the learner is a prerequisite for meaningful learning

Names of structural theory

The structural theory of education goes by many names, It is therefore sometimes referred to as (cognitive structural theory) or (conceptual structural theory in education).

Constructive learning makes the learner turn into concepts and controls the relationship between them, Instead of accepting it through memory, Then stripping it through thinking and deduce, and give him ways and means to deal with problems, Moving it in this direction grows exploratory and internal knowledge building information that is influenced by the surrounding environment, society, and language, Each learner has a special way of understanding information.

Modern structural theory emerged more than two decades ago, Structural ideas gradually spread, This has led to the application of these ideas in the field of science. therefore In this age when knowledge is built in the head, There is a large group of educators who believe. Learner of the learner, This idea is at the centre of structural theory of education.

Principles of structural theory:

Structural theory has many principles, Some focus on the effective role of structural learners in the educational process, Which can be summarized as follows:

(1) Previous knowledge:

The previous knowledge of the learner or the previous knowledge structure of the learner is at the heart of the learning process based on this theory, Because the learner builds knowledge based on previous experience, It is a prerequisite for building meaningful learning.

(2) Meaningful learning:

The learner establishes the self-building of meaning for everything he learns, Meaning is shaped in its cognitive structure through the social interaction of its senses with the outside world around it in order to provide it with information and experience, To enable him to link new information to his information consistent with the meaning of correct scientific knowledge.

(3) Find problem solving:

Learning occurs in the best way and under optimal circumstances when an individual faces a real problem, attitude or task, begins to find an appropriate solution through a constructive knowledge process in which an individual’s cognitive structure changes, For example, when new information is the input to organize ideas and experiences that exist in the context of

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